Writing Rules

Title Keep it simple; approximately 12 words
  Use the title to describe the contents of your article accurately
  Avoid abbreviations, jargon, formulas
  Avoid words with little impact (‘Observations on…’, ‘Investigation into…’, ‘Study of…’)
  Report the subject of the paper and not the results
Authors Usually listed in logical order of level of contribution
  Specify the corresponding author
Keywords Important to increase the visibility of the paper in abstracting services
  Avoid using the same words as in the title
  Use 3 keywords that best represent the manuscript
Abstract Should be definitive and not descriptive
  Use this to present facts
  Stick to the word limit of the journal (usually 100–150 words)
  Avoid wasted words (abbreviations, acronyms, references to tables or figures, general statements)
  Use this as a standalone version of the paper
Introduction Does not need to be long
  Should tell the reader why the paper is of interest
  Avoid repetition
Methods Explain your steps clearly (usually in the past tense)
  List inclusion and exclusion criteria
  Discuss consent and ethics clearance
Results & Discussion Core of the paper as presenting new knowledge
  Only report representative data
  Include negative data to allow adequate interpretation of the results
  Use SI system (Système International d’Unités) for reporting measurements
  Do not present the same data in tables and graphs
  Explain the meaning/implications of the results
  Do not repeat what has already been reported
  Show how the results agree or do not agree with what is already known about the subject
Conclusions State the outcome of the study
  State the possible implications of the findings
  Do not state: ‘More research is needed…’
Acknowledgement Thank individuals who helped significantly with the paper
  Can be included as a footnote at the end of the paper if no separate section
Conflict of interest Always declare any conflict of interest – real or perceived